Por qué engordamos o adelgazamos?

Es importante que mantengamos un equilibrio entre la cantidad de Kcal que comemos y la cantidad de energía que consumimos.

 

La cantidad de Kcal que introducimos por la dieta es bastante sencilla de calcular puesto que cada tipo de nutriente aporta una cantidad conocida de Kcal. Así pues, tenemos que por cada gramo de

  • Hidratos de carbono: 4 kcal
  • Proteínas: 4 kcal
  • Lípidos:  9 kcal
  • Alcohol: 7 kcal

Por tanto, sabiendo la cantidad de alimentos que consumimos y conociendo su composición nutricional, podremos calcular la cantidad de energía que introducimos con nuestra dieta.

 

Ahora bien, para que exista el balance energético también deberemos conocer el consumo energético.

Para ello, cuando se trata de una persona sana, lo dividiremos en 3 áreas:

  • Metabolismo basal (65%): Es la energía que invertimos para mantenimiento de nuestras constantes vitales. Depende directamente de nuestra edad, masa (grasa y magra) y altura.
  • Termogénesis inducida por la dieta (10%): Es la energía que invertimos en digerir, transportar y absorber los nutrientes de los alimentos. Según el tipo de nutriente invertimos una cantidad distinta de la energía que nos aportan en digerirlas. Así,
    • Proteínas: invertimos ±30%
    • Hidratos de carbono: ±15%
    • Lípidos: ±5%
  • Actividad física (25%): No debemos confundirlo con la práctica de deporte. Cualquier actividad que realicemos a lo largo del día supone un consumo energético. La OMS recomienda al menos 30 min/día de práctica de ejercicio físico.

 

Según los datos elaborados por el médico-investigador D. Francisco Grande Covián, a las diferentes actividades físicas les corresponde un consumo energético distinto (en el caso de las mujeres hay que reducir un 10%).

 

Subir escaleras en la actividad que mayor consumo energético tiene. Consumimos 0,254 kcal/kg/min. Así pues, un hombre de 70 kg de peso si subiese las escaleras de casa 3 veces al día e invirtiese 6 min en total, consumiría 107 kcal.

Vamos a buscar equivalencias de consumo energético con la práctica de distintas actividades físicas para un consumo de 107 kcal.

 

  • Correr a una velocidad de 8-10 km/h supone un consumo de 0,151 kcal/kg/min. Necesitaría invertir poco más de 10 min

 

Jorge Ondo

Jorge Ondo

 

  • Pasear supone 0,038 kcal/kg/min. Necesita invertir algo más de 40 min.
  • Jugar al tenis supone 0,109 kcal/kg/min. Necesita invertir 14 min.
Ariadna Ondo

Ariadna Ondo

En conclusión, es importante que tengamos una vida activa además de que seamos capaces de mantener una alimentación saludable en cantidad suficiente, que comprenda variedad de alimentos y exista un equilibrio en el aporte de nutrientes. Si el balance ingesta de alimentos y consumo de energía resulta positivo, la tendencia será a engordar e incrementar nuestro peso. Por el contrario, si el balance es negativo conseguiremos perder peso.

 

José Catalá.

Nutrición Humana y Dietética

20 Comments

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